What is Sand Die Casting?

Sand casting is a method of casting which makes use of sand to create the casting molds for parts. A pattern is first constructed from some compatible material like (wood, plastics, etc.) which is in the shape of the final exterior of the product. This pattern will then be placed into one of two halves of a mold, known as either a cope (top half of) or drag (bottom half), and sand can be packed tightly across the pattern. When this step is finished, gating structures, runners, sprues, and optional cores are added to finalize the mold, and each half is clamped together. After the mold is finalized, molten metal is poured into the clamped mold and set to cool. When completely stable, the sand can be removed through water jets, vibration, or other methods till the final part is unearthed. It is essential to perform a little post-processing in sand casting including sharpening/sanding/excess metal elimination /polishing, as this procedure does not conform to the mold as appropriately as different casting strategies. After this cleansing step, the component is finalized and examined for quality assurance. Sand casting, even as no longer as dimensionally accurate as other methods, allows operators to efficaciously create any sized part affordably and without difficulty.

It can be used to make metal components of all sizes, ranging from 1kg to few 100 tons. The statistics show more than 61% of all metal castings are produced through sand casting.

There are variety of sand materials that can be used to make the mold. The sand typically consists of different materials like contains Silica, Chromite, Zircon Sand, olivine or some chemical bonding agent to reinforce it which will be able to arise to the pouring process.

Based on the alloys different sands are used namely, Green Sand, Resin bonded sands.

Sand Casting Process:

Step 1:Making the Pattern of Desired part

This technique utilizes reusable pattern with the same details as the desired finished part. There is thermal contraction or shrink allowance also provided.

Step 2: The second step is to set up the metal delivering system.
The pattern produced in previous step, in which the metal pathways that will feed the desired cast product design with appropriate gating and risers. This drives the inevitable thermal contraction to desirable regions(someplace apart from the actual desired finished product), and manages the metal flow with required gas venting.

Patterns are made of different materials like wood, metal, synthetics, etc. Which depends on the required volume and tolerance values.

Step 3: Mold Creation

The important part in this process is developing the mold.

A high temperature refractory material which is stable at high temperature (sand, in our instance) is formed across the pattern. The material must be sturdy enough to hold the weight of the molten metal throughout casting and resistant to any reaction with the metal, yet brittle sufficient enough to be in ease to get removed away by breaking it from the solidified metal after the casting cools.

Alternatively, the mold can be created through machining the desired shaped cavity directly into the block of sand. This approach is broadly used during product development because design modifications can be controlled and implemented fast, or for parts with infrequent utilization to avoid the storage or preservation of a physical pattern. The mold is typically produced in two pieces, the top half [which is called as “cope box”] and the bottom half [called as “drag box”]. Once the sand is set (either using the traditional or non-machined method), the halves are separated, and the pattern is removed. A refractory coating is provided additionally for better surface finish and protect the mold from the turbulence of the poured metal. The halves are positioned back together, leaving a cavity in the shape of the pattern.

The mold can also contain “cores”, which are used to produce internal passage ways in the final product as desired by the clients requirements.

Step 4: Pouring the molten metal
Molten metal is poured directly into the static mold. It fills the cavity of both the finished part and risers. The risers gets filled with an available supply of liquid metal. As they are designed to cool and solidify last, the shrink is concentrated in the riser rather than in the desired part. There are numerous alternate ways of “tilt pouring” are available. It is a procedure designed to allow metal to flow effortlessly into the casting, eliminating turbulence. Less turbulence can assist preventing the creation of oxides and other casting defects. For those materials mainly reactive with oxygen, a procedure such as argon shielding may be employed to keep air away from the molten metal.

Step 5: Shakeout
The casting, which includes both the desired part and the additional metal required to create it, solidifies and cools. The sand is broken away in a shakeout manner. Much of the sand which is used to create the mold is collected, reconditioned, and can be utilized again.

Step 6: Post machining operations.
This is the final step of this casting process. The gates, runners, and risers are shrug off from the casting, and if vital, final post-processing sandblasting, grinding, etc., are performed to finish the casting process. Sand castings often require atleast a few additional post machining to reach final dimensions or tolerances.

Difference between Die casting And Sand Casting:
More lead time
Requires high initial investment, suitable for high volume of manufacturing
Used for small precision parts, but not for larger castings
Delivers clean and smooth surface finish
More profitable in simplified assembly
High cost
Requires less lead time
Faster and cheaper process
Suitable for both small precision parts to larger components
Has porosity issues and requires cleaning after casting
More flexible with size, shapes and weights
Low cost


Sand casting is one of the most popular and versatile types of casting, and can be used to create a variety of parts with a variety of materials. It is almost available for any metal alloys, includes metals with higher melting point like Steel, titanium, nickel.

The most common materials used in sand casting are,

  • Stainless Steel – It is a very popular alloy providing distinct properties such as Strength, Durability, wear resistance. Best option for small quantity with high precision parts.
  • Brass bronze
  • Lead – It provides great machinability, excellent corrosion and Stress corrosion cracking resistance. It is also a great environment friendly alternative.
  • Copper nickel Alloy – Its also called as Cupronickel, which exhibit certain properties valuable in manufacturing processes. They are also resistant to corrosion, Hydrogen embrittlement, Stress cracking.

Whatever the metal or alloy you choose, Sand die casting can create high quality parts for various applications.

Zastata is also expertised in certain specific alloys like

  • Aluminium alloys –  Aluminium 713, Aluminium 356,357,                                                                Aluminium535 [AlMag],etc.
  • Brass Alloys – Brass C95400, C93500, C92600, C83300, Red Brass C83600 & C89833, Etc.
  • Cast Irons & Grey Cast Irons
  • High Manganese Steel, Carbon Steel, etc.

The post-production machining operations and finishing processes are,

After removing the production components from the cast, the components must be cleaned and require certain finish processes

Some of the Heat treatment processes Zastata provides to enhance material properties are,

  • Normalizing
  • Annealing
  • Quenching
  • Tempering
  • Carburizing treatment process.

Zastata also performs premium quality testing procedures such as

Along with conventional Inspection services provided, Non-destructive testing like fluorescent penetration, magnetic particle, radiographic, or other inspections may also be performed. Final dimensional inspections, alloy test results, and NDT are validated authentically with expertise prior to shipment.

Finishing Processes
Zastata provides some finishing Processes like,

  • Polishing, Sanding, Deburring, Grinding, etc.
  • Peening & shot blasting – to roughen a smooth surface is required.
  • Fettling – to improve surface flatness of the component.
  • Painting and Powder coating – to enhance physical wear resistance, prevents corrosion and also improve physical appearances.

Quality documentation
Zastata has good understanding and experience with Quality documentation like:

APQP – Advanced Product Quality Planning
FMEA – Failure Mode Effective Analysis
PPAP Level 3 – Production Part Approval Process
SPC – Statistical Process Control
MSA – Measurement System Analysis


Zastata chooses manufacturers based on required certifications and product applications. Our manufacturers are certified to:

ISO 9001:2015 (Quality Management System)
ISO 14001:2015 (Environmental Management System)
ISO 45001:2018 (OH & SMS)
AS9100 Rev C (Aviation, Space and Defence)
ISO13485:2016 (Medical Devices)
IATF16949:2016 (Automotive Quality Management System)


Whilst Pressure die casting is widely used casting method for high volume production, there are other casting methods which have their merits

Gravity Diecasting-01




Pressure Die casting



Over the years, Zastata has audited and worked with various die casting manufacturer across India for various casting types. Our pressure die casting company are selected and retained based on their quarterly quality performance on Cost, Delivery, Quality, Communication, Innovation and flexibility.


Over the years, Zastata has audited and worked with various die casting manufacturer across India for various casting types. Our pressure die casting company are selected and retained based on their quarterly quality performance on Cost, Delivery, Quality, Communication, Innovation and flexibility.











  • Low cost and High Versatile process
  • This process is fast and green (environmentally secure)
  • High versatility with majority of metals & metal alloys
  • Suitable for production of Large, complex Shape casting components and additionally Smaller parts too.
  • Comparatively, this process has low tooling and Equipment cost than other Casting techniques.
  • Scrap metal and Sand can be reused (or) recycled.
  • The process is also notably smooth and safe, making it an appealing option for plenty of businesses.

The Sand-Casting process is ideal for almost any complex part due to its versatility and above mentioned advantages.

Some of the applications are,

  • Engine blocks, Gears & other Automobile parts.
  • Medical and Surgical Equipments
  • Musical Instruments
  • Various Airplane and Ship components.
  • Turbocharger turbines
  • Mining Machineries.
  • Pipes and




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